Plundering of Bangladesh economy!

Ershad Majumdar


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I have been under home captivity for a long time. I am spending the day lying down and mobile base. I have not prepared any book for this year's book fair. I thought Mr. Alamgir Hossain was working in his office regularly. We are of the same age. So let me try to get started. The first thing that came to mind was the financial sector of Bangladesh. The supervisory body of this sector is Bangladesh Bank. There are some thieves inside this central bank. The big robber named PK Haldar used to patronize the thieves of the central bank. Haldar had to form a huge allied force to launder thousands of crores of rupees. There are people from all walks of life. So he was able to cross the border without any hindrance. Haldar even kept two beautiful women. They entertained Haldar and entertained his guests. In this way, Haldar used to smuggle out money in the hands of influential people in the government and private sectors. In this way, he took possession of four leasing companies and fled the country with thousands of crores of takas.

Mr. Haldar has cleared the way for bankruptcy not only of leasing companies but also of a couple of banks. The responsible officials of Bangladesh Bank knew the matter very well. The issue came to the notice of the government and the general public after small depositors of People's Leasing took to the streets. Bangladesh Bank wanted to quietly or semi-secretly stop People's Leasing. If thousands of small depositors become beggars or die, the governor does not care. The governor does not keep any news that the thieves are sitting inside his bank.

If not, will he get a job? No, I can't. He can even become the finance minister. Earlier, the reserves of Bangladesh Bank were looted. Nothing happened to anyone. Instead, the then governor happily went to Delhi to visit. The then ‘rubbish’ finance minister said it was not much money. Reserve looters smuggled dollars abroad and set up gambling venues. But those who have looted thousands of crores of rupees from leasing companies are in the country. Maybe a few people have been arrested. The main looter is PK Haldar sitting abroad and moving the call stick. The countrymen still do not know the identities of those who helped in looting the country's reserve dollars. They may still be working in Bangladesh Bank. Maybe they have gone abroad. The son of a famous farmer, the former governor is in the country. He probably knows everything. The former ‘rubbish’ minister also knows everything. Although he first said that eight hundred million dollars does not mean much. Later he often said that he would bring back the money.

PK Haldar gathered influential people in his looting gang who helped him in the looting in exchange for money. Haldar used to spend the looted money with both hands. He has empowered his servants. He has made them the owners of crores of rupees. Whoever he wanted would be made MD chairman. It had the support of Bangladesh Bank. Even Haldar had deposited hundreds of crores of money in his mother's name and some banks are going bankrupt. The government is also in disarray. Whoever gave the responsibility took part in the looting. A relative has robbed Basic Bank. Many have lost their jobs in the bank. But nothing happened to the relatives. Maybe in the future he can also become an MP or a minister. A former secretary declared rebellion against a former government and later became a minister. The government was happy and donated a Farmers Bank to the minister. That Farmers Bank eventually became a bone of contention like a farmer. That bank is now Padma Bank. By changing the name, he has now started taking deposits from the people.

As you know, the banks have defaulted on several lakh crores of money. The defaulters are influential people in the society. They became MP, ministers. The worst-hit are state-owned banks. There is no settlement of its deposit. The MD chairman or the board all pay the defaulter in a team. Some shares are distributed here and there. There was no such looting in the financial sector during the half-colony period. Although there was looting, it was limited to five to ten percent. During the Pakistan period the Bengalis had two banks. One is Mercantile (Pubali), the other is Eastern Banking (Uttara). These two were owned by Ak Khan Saheb and Zahirul Islam Saheb. Mr. Zahirul Islam's family still owns Uttara Bank. Mr. Ak Khan was the Minister of Industries during the Pakistan period. We have not heard any notoriety of Mr. Khan as a businessman or a minister. We don't hear much about the family of Mr. Zahirul Islam. However, Eastern Housing has a notoriety for occupying the land of the poor. I have not heard any notoriety of these two families during the Pakistan period regarding bank deposits. In 1983,  the National Bank was established in the private sector with a paid-up capital of only three crore taka. Its initiator and founder was Mr. Mujibul Haider Chowdhury. Many of them have become directors with a capital of five lakhs. At one stage, the directors realized that if Haider Chowdhury existed, they would not be able to loot. So he was expelled. National Bank is still in the possession of Sikdar Group. Now it takes four hundred crore taka to establish a bank. The person who got the license for political reasons sold the shares and became the owner of four or five hundred crore taka. The names of 22 families could be heard during the Pakistan period. Now the names of 22,000 Bengali families can be heard. Several years ago, a former MP known as Dwip bandhu opened an investment company called Bangladesh Commerce. He became an MP and transformed the bankrupt company into a bank and renamed it Bangladesh Commerce Bank. Now rumors are circulating that this bank is also going to be bankrupt.

Now Bengalis earn income in Bangladesh which means they rob banks and take that money to Canada and Malaysia. Now Bengalis earn income in Bangladesh which means they rob banks and take that money to Canada and Malaysia. Build a house there. They get their  sons/daughters married in Pakistan and India. Haldar's name has become very popular inside. For example, Al Amin Group has looted around Tk. 400 crore from People's Leasing. Again they joined hands with Mr. Darbesh to take ownership of People's Leasing. With the help of Mr. Darbesh, the gentleman came forward to take charge of the People's Leasing. He himself has paid money. Now he is saying that he will repay all the money in one hundred years. Just let him or they go abroad. Bank accounts should be opened. PK Haldar is saying the same thing. If given a chance to do business he will return the money and do business regularly. He cannot be arrested. There are still many brokers to broke for Haldar. As I have said before, PK Haldar has paid many brokers to work for him. One of the entertaining women is still out and doing regular office work and lobbying for PK.?

Never before has there been such a big scandal in the financial world as the looting of PK. Many are in the country defaulting on loans of Tk. 15,000 crore and trying to do business. Arefin of Alamin Group is still in the country. If there is effective and strong supervision in the management of the bank, there are not so many defaulters. The rich have realized that once the money is withheld, where will the bank go without baldness again? He has political influence over it. A shining example of this is the revered Darbesh. He took money from the bank in various ways and rescheduled it. He also became the owner of bank insurance. He has a game in the stock market. He has lobbied for Arefin of Alamin Group to take over People's Leasing. The depositors have been wandering behind Arefin for some time. Later it was seen that Arefin himself was sitting on People's Leasing money.

Now the government is in a financial crisis. It is trying to collect money from all around. Finding out where the surplus is to any organization. The government does not have the necessary funds for development at the moment. The revenue collection target is not being achieved this year. Even income tax payers who have no income are sending letters to others asking for advance income tax. Even fear of the law is being shown. The Income Tax Department considers such notices to be their routine work. Earlier, car insurance had first party and third party arrangements. Now the first party has been made mandatory. In the case of public and private companies, this system is fine. But for a middle class who thinks of the transport system in Dhaka city, even if it is a small old car for his family, compulsory first party insurance is a kind of oppression. For a car, the government collects 30/40 thousand takas a year in income tax, road tax, fitness and so on. There is also an annual income tax.

On the other hand, the relatives of the government are taking money from different banks in various ways. Returning the money is secondary. No one has anything to say. Banks fulfill their legal responsibilities by writing regular letters. If too much, make a case. PK Haldar is a new kind and new strategy. He has touched Bangladesh Bank. As a result, the bank's deputy governor and executive director took a monthly salary from PK. If he gave a big bet, he would give them a lot. He is a banker himself, he knows if making paper will kill money. He has bankrupted four leasing companies. Anyone who knew about Haldar's looting would get a share. He had a warehouse of land deeds. He used to buy land in the village very cheaply. He used to mortgage a bank by showing fifty taka for a piece of land, purchasing it for one taka. In this way he has looted ten thousand crores of taka. However, the government has not taken any humanitarian program to return the money to the depositors. On the contrary, Bangladesh Bank has hastily taken initiative to liquidate the small depositors of People's Leasing by making them beggars. Bangladesh Bank has given a license to leasing companies to collect deposits. It is the moral responsibility of the government and the central bank to protect the depositors.


Why do Bangladeshi patients go abroad?

Dr. Mahfuz Parvez,
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According to the World Health Organization, six things need to be ensured for a health system to function properly—adequate financing, manpower, medical equipment, data, proper guidelines for service delivery and proper management. In the absence of any one of them, the other cannot function properly.

Everyone knows how little the above conditions exist in Bangladesh. Due to which common people are often victims of lack of treatment and wrong treatment. And a significant number of patients go abroad for better treatment.

While discussing these matters, it may be recalled that on September 10, 1794, a municipal sanitary code similar to that of England was introduced in Calcutta. That was the first institutional initiative in the health sector of Bengal. Almost two hundred years have passed since then. And we are still reeling in the absence of a sustainable health and medical system. I could not build a standard structure in the field of general treatment. In special emergency situations like dengue or corona, it becomes fatal. Advanced treatment is far away, with dying patients being rushed from one hospital to another in the hope of being accommodated.

In the overall situation, it has become a reality that a large part of the patients in Bangladesh go abroad for treatment. For the vast majority of Bangladeshi general patients, treatment abroad means Kolkata. Next destination is Chennai. Some flock to hospitals in Delhi or Mumbai. Many go as far as Kerala in search of more advanced medical facilities.

High class patients prefer to go to Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Those who can afford it, move to more developed countries.

But the question is, if you go abroad, can you always get good treatment? Many lost their lives and money due to wrong treatment and medical mafia. Patients run from one doctor to another doctor, from one hospital to another hospital inside and outside the country for cure, relief of suffering. Desperate people turn to alternative medicine or alternative medicine such as Jhar-phuk, Kaviraji. Patients with terminal illnesses are expected to seek specialized treatment after a cancer diagnosis. Because, advanced (high-end) medical services are still insufficient in our country. What has been developed is very expensive.

Therefore, patients of our country often have to go abroad to receive advanced medical treatment. India, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia are first in the list of foreign countries. Developed countries like the United States and the United Kingdom are also on the list of the super rich. The neighboring country India is the biggest destination for Bangladeshi patients going abroad. Apart from high quality medical facilities, this is due to India's land connectivity with Bangladesh. It takes less time to travel from the northern part of Bangladesh to Dhaka than it takes to travel to India. People of India and Bangladesh have many similarities in food, language and culture. As per an average of one year, 2 lakh 21 thousand 751 patients from Bangladesh went to India for treatment. They have spent approximately five thousand crore takas. The flow of Bangladeshi patients to India is increasing every year. This is due to people's lack of confidence in the country's medical services, anarchic conditions, low quality services and high costs.

Bangladeshi patients visit India for complex heart surgery, cancer treatment, organ transplant, infertility treatment, bone and joint surgery, neurology, kidney disease, medical checkup etc. In these cases, there is a danger if the right doctor and the right hospital are not determined. For this, it is necessary to take initiative by knowing the correct information.

Bangladesh is undoubtedly a huge market for India's medical system. Despite earning hundreds of crores of rupees from this market, Indian hospitals are not paying proper attention to the patients and market of Bangladesh. Bangladeshi patients are not being helped properly in terms of providing real information and transparency. Big corporate hospitals are doing unilateral business but they are not thinking of developing a marketing system and increasing information services in Bangladesh for Bangladeshi patients.

In order to do business stably in the long term, Indian hospitals need to focus more on Bangladesh and take various practical and effective steps.

[Dr. Mahfuz Parvez, Professor, Department of Political Science, Chattogram University; Associate Editor,; Executive Director, Chittagong Center for Regional Studies, Bangladesh (CCRSBD)]


Bangabandhu – an eternal beacon of development and progress

Dr. Matiur Rahman
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Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman played a leading role in Bangladesh's independence struggle from Pakistan. He was a charismatic leader and served as the President of Bangladesh after independence in 1971. His leadership and foresight were instrumental in the formation of the newly independent country.

On the terrible morning of August 15, 1975, a group of army officers launched a coup against the government of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The gang, led by wayward army officers, attacked his residence in Dhaka. As a result of the coup, most of the family members including Bangabandhu, his wife, sons Sheikh Kamal and Sheikh Jamal, child Sheikh Russel, relatives and government officials were brutally killed.

After the assassination of Bangabandhu, a military government took control of Bangladesh and the country experienced years of political instability. The new regime followed a different political agenda, which changed the political landscape of the country.

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman formally declared the independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan on March 26, 1971 in response to years of political, economic, social, and linguistic and cultural rule, exploitation, oppression, and marginalization of the people of the then East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) under the ruling class of West Pakistan. .

This declaration marked the beginning of the Bangladesh War of Independence, which was organized as a nine-month armed conflict between the liberation-seeking common people of Bangladesh and the Pakistani military. The war ended with the victory of the Bangladesh Liberation Army on December 16, 1971, thereby establishing Bangladesh as an independent and sovereign nation.

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman contributed significantly to nation building in Bangladesh as an independent nation. His leadership and vision laid the foundation for the country's development and progress.

As the founding leader of Bangladesh, Bangabandhu played a leading role in guiding the nation during its formation. His leadership provided stability and direction to a country that had just emerged from a long and arduous struggle for independence.

After Bangladesh's war of independence, the country faced massive infrastructure destruction and a humanitarian crisis. Bangabandhu focused on reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts, rebuilding the war-torn country and helping millions of displaced and affected citizens.

Under his leadership, the first constitution of independent, sovereign Bangladesh was adopted in 1972, providing a framework for governance and democratic principles. The constitution reflects the ideals of Bengali nationalism, democracy, secularism and socialism, reflecting Bangabandhu's humanitarian vision for a progressive and inclusive nation.

Bangabandhu emphasized the importance of social justice and economic justice. He advocated policies to uplift the marginalized and disadvantaged sections of society with a view to a more equitable distribution of wealth and opportunities.

Bangabandhu's government initiated agrarian reforms to address the problems of land ownership and landlessness. The reforms sought to provide land to landless peasants, promote agricultural development and eradicate rural poverty.

Under Bangabandhu's leadership, the government nationalized several key industries and institutions to ensure state control over strategic sectors of the economy and increase economic self-reliance.

He was vocal in favor of women's rights and empowerment. His government took steps to improve women's participation in education, the workforce, and politics. He tried to promote gender equality in various spheres of society.

Bangabandhu's foreign policy focused on establishing good relations with other countries and promoting regional cooperation. He actively participated in the Non-Aligned Movement and sought international diplomatic recognition and support for Bangladesh.

Bangabandhu laid emphasis on national unity and preservation of Bengali culture, language and heritage. He wanted to build a strong national identity and pride among the people of Bangladesh.

Bangabandhu was a strong proponent of world peace and disarmament. He called for an end to the arms race and nuclear proliferation, advocating for a world free from the threat of war.

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's dream of building a "Sonar Bangla" was a prosperous, self-reliant and just Bangladesh. He expressed this vision during his leadership and wanted to transform the newly independent country into an ideal society where people could live with dignity, freedom and prosperity.

Bangabandhu emphasized economic development as the basis of his vision to build a “Sonar Bangla”. He envisioned an economy that would be self-sufficient and able to meet the basic needs of citizens. He believed in reducing poverty and income inequality, promoting industrialization and developing the agricultural sector to ensure food security and economic growth.

He advocated a secular state where people of all religions could practice their religious beliefs freely and vigorously. His vision aimed to maintain religious tolerance and inclusion in the country.

Bangabandhu's dream was ambitious and aimed to transform Bangladesh into a modern, progressive and self-reliant state.

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's brutal killing is a cause of deep regret for the Bengali nation for several significant reasons. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the founding leader of Bangladesh and played a leading role in the country's struggle for independence and its early years as an independent nation.

His vision, leadership and dedication to the welfare of Bengalis was instrumental in shaping the nation's identity and direction. As a result of his assassination, the Bengali nation lost a visionary leader who showed the ability to lead Bangladesh towards progress and prosperity.

Bangabandhu's unwavering commitment to Bangladesh's independence led to long and repeated imprisonments and personal sacrifices. He endured years of struggles and adversities and fought for the freedom of the country. His brutal murder created a tragic end in the life of the Bengali nation. Bangabandhu sacrificed himself for the betterment of his people and country.

The assassination of a democratically elected leader is a serious blow to the principles of democracy and the sanctity of elected governance. This disrupts the democratic process and plunges the nation into a long period of political instability.

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is called the 'Father of the Nation' in Bangladesh. His memory is cherished; he holds a special place in the hearts of Bengalis. His assassination is a deep loss that the nation still feels, as he represented the aspirations of crores of Bengalis.

Although Bangladesh has made significant progress since its independence, regret for Bangabandhu's brutal assassination is a reminder of the challenges in protecting democracy and human rights, and the need to ensure justice and accountability in such tragedies.

Democratic governance returned to Bangladesh through free, independent and peaceful elections under the leadership of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's daughter Sheikh Hasina. Since being elected Prime Minister in 1996, Sheikh Hasina has led the government of Bangladesh several times. She played an important role in shaping the political scenario of the country and implementing various developmental initiatives.

Bangabandhu's contribution and dream of a united and prosperous Bangladesh has left an indelible mark in the nation's history. After his assassination, his daughter Sheikh Hasina has been working tirelessly to fulfill Bangabandhu's dream and build a golden Bengal. She has become a prominent political figure in Bangladesh and the outside world. She is playing an important role in advancing Bangabandhu's vision and goals. It is said that she has made Bangladesh a role model for development.

August 15, 1975 was a tragic event in the life of the Bengali nation. On this day, despite the tragic killing of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the best father of the Bengali nation for a thousand years, his contribution to the country's independence and nation building is remembered with respect in the country and outside the country. By defeating all the negative forces and turning grief into strength, the Bengali nation is moving towards development and progress. Get motivated to move forward. As a visionary leader and "Father of the Nation", Bangabandhu is and will remain an eternal beacon in Bengali life for the progress and development of the country.

Dr. Matiur Rahman: Researcher and development worker.


Whither Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami?

Ankita Sanyal
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In June, a new party, the Bangladesh Development Party, applied for registration with the Election Commission of Bangladesh. It has been known for some time that the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami – which was deregistered as a political party in 2013 since its constitution contradicts the Bangladesh Constitution – has been contemplating its political future by forming a new party.

There has been a debate since 2016 regarding whether the party should reincarnate itself as a new party since all its top leaders had been convicted of war crimes. In 2018, the EC decided not to ban the party, but to cancel their registration following a 2013 High Court order that declared the party's registration illegal. The party would have probably preferred a ban so as to justify the formation of a new party, and also because, if Jamaat is dissolved without a ban, it would essentially be confirming its negative role in the Liberation War.

The War Crimes Tribunal and the hanging of several top leaders of Jamaat after they were convicted has been contested by the party. After 2008, it decided not to participate in the 2014 election following the decision of its alliance partner, Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). It participated in the 2018 election under the BNP symbol, as part of the 20-party alliance. Though there was reluctance to include Jamaat in the electoral alliance, given its role in the Liberation War, political expediency prevailed in the end.

Jamaat and BNP: Tactical separation?

Prior to the 2018 election, several leaders within BNP had urged the party to end its alliance with Jamaat. This call for separation was also made by the European Union in 2015, as it was widely believed that Jamaat cadres were involved in widespread violence that had resulted in more than 100 people being killed. Though there was some debate within BNP about its association with Jamaat, in the end it was decided it would not to cut off ties.
Jamaat-e-Islami head Dr Shafiqur Rahman, in a meeting held in August 2022, said, "The alliance has become ineffective." In January this year, BNP and Jamaat held separate programmes. Though some leaders within the BNP attributed Jamaat's decision to go separate ways as "good riddance," the fact remains that the BNP did not have the political courage to de-link with Jamaat. Therefore, this separation appears to be tactical.

After a decade, Jamaat was allowed to hold a rally in Dhaka on June 10. The permission to hold the rally at the Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh (IEB) was granted by overriding another request made by Jatiya Party's youth wing, Jatiyo Jubo Sanghati. Some even speculate a possible understanding between Jamaat and the Awami League, as it has been stated from the government's end that the permission was granted due to "a political decision.

As of now, the two erstwhile allies are holding rallies separately while keeping their options open. Jamaat has always been close to BNP, but seems to have realised that a tactical separation would help it to survive the political turmoil, as Awami League remains focused on discrediting BNP.

Jamaat and the West

Jamaat-e-Islami remains the largest Islamic fundamentalist party in Bangladesh. But it shares an interesting relationship with the Western countries, especially with the US and those in the European Union. At one point of time, Jamaat was even promoted as a moderate Islamic party. Yet, the US Department of State Country Report on Terrorism 2006 had indicted the Islami Bank, which had several board members belonging to Jamaat, for funding the Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen (JMB), a terrorist organisation. Similarly, it is also known that one of the former JMB leaders, previously Habiganj district head of Jamaat-e-Islami, Saidur Rahman was a rokan of Jamaat. However, Jamaat immediately distanced itself from him and argued that Saidur did not belong to the party and had left it a long time back. In 2014, its student organisation was involved in violence against minorities. Though Jamaat in the past has distanced itself from Bangladesh Islami Chhatra Shibir, which many believe is the armed wing of the party, most Jamaat leaders in their student days have engaged in politics through Chhatra Shibir. The party has also been at the forefront of a campaign to declare the Ahmadiyya as non-Muslims.

While the EU has been vocal in the past about Jamaat in several of its resolutions, asking the BNP to sever its ties with Jamaat, the US has kept rather quiet regarding the party. In a confidential note, as revealed by Wikileaks, the US Embassy in Dhaka in January 2010 wrote, "Mission Dhaka will continue to engage with Jamaat and Shabbir [Chhatra Shibir] and track their efforts to transform Bangladesh into a more Islamic state." On July 24, the US ambassador met with the main party functionaries of Jamaat. Meanwhile, the European Union Parliament, following the 2007 violence, had urged the BNP to unequivocally distance itself from Jamaat-e-Islami and Hafezat-e-Islam, which are regarded as the main instigators of the violence, stressing that parties which turn to terrorist acts should be banned.

Jamaat-e-Islami as a party insists on Islamic values and maintenance of purdah. Some of the writings that appear in the newspaper that is controlled by the party discourages mingling between opposite sexes, discourages women from working with men as it would lead to fitna, and argues that the prime responsibilities of women are taking care of their husbands, children, and doing household chores.

Whither Jamaat-e-Islami?

However, the question is, while the Bangladesh Development Party (BDP) – which many think is a front organisation of Jamaat – is waiting for registration as a new political party, why does Jamaat want to display its political strength by organising rallies, instead of allowing the BDP to emerge? This brings us to another question: is Jamaat expecting the restoration of its registration by the EC? Since it is an established political party, receiving votes in its name would rehabilitate the party in the country's politics, especially post the war crime trials.

Another relatively new party, Amar Bangladesh Party, which is headed by former Jamaat activist Mujibur Rahman Manju, has been denied registration by the EC. AB Party projects itself as a reformist party that does not want to burden itself with the history that Jamaat inherited due to their role in supporting the Pakistan Army during the Liberation War. In 2019, Barrister Abdur Razzak resigned from Jamaat, citing the party's role in 1971. Such reformist moves within Jamaat are not new.

The party has so far dodged this issue by expelling those who have raised such questions and has survived as a prominent Islamist political party with ideological and monetary strength. Not surprisingly, Jamaat has managed to surface, with its cadres intact, to take the opportunity that the upcoming national election provides. For now, it does not seem in a hurry to implement its larger Islamisation project. But in its hurry to have a multiparty election minus BNP, the AL's flirtation with Jamaat may have serious implications for Bangladeshi society and politics.

Author Ankita Sanyal is working as an Associate Research Fellow at International Centre for Peace Studies (ICPS) in New Delhi.


The Devastating State of Breast Cancer Patients in Chittagong Medical College Hospital

Nyma Hossain
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Breast cancer, a life-threatening disease, has the highest prevalence compared to any other type of cancer in Bangladeshi women, yet little to no women above the age of 35 know about the following cancer. That is why, this incident increases significantly each year due to poor socio-economic status, illiteracy, unawareness of the people and lastly, lack of confidence of the patients which leads most women to go to doctors late which results in the disease entering a second or third stage and treatment becomes very complicated and costly.

Over a dozen of breast cancer patients were interviewed in Chittagong Medical College Hospital and not a single patient knew about a cancer related to breast before diagnosis. Among those patients, only one crossed the boundary of the high school or passed SSC. Many of them barely studied till class 6 and some of them never went to school. They also come from a poor socio-economic status and few cannot even afford the treatment. As most of them come from a conservative society, they do not talk about it much and are ashamed of it.

44 years old Jitu Begum, a victim of breast cancer, was suggested to seek homeopathy treatment by the people of her village when she started to feel a lump on her breast. As a result, the tumor was left untreated and her condition worsened. The doctors informed her, leaving the tumor untreated for a long period of time caused the cancer.

50 years old Mojlish Begum, also a victim of the same tragic fate, was diagnosed with cancer 5 years ago but stopped the treatment as she couldn’t afford it anymore. It led her condition becoming from bad to worse.

Studies show that women from poor socio-economic status and with no or low education are often victims of late presentation and tend to have a higher stage at diagnosis. Poverty, literacy and assorted risk factors have influenced the outcome of breast cancer cases among Bangladeshi women.

As the primary method of breast cancer diagnosis is biopsy, patients need to contact a doctor as soon as they notice abnormal symptoms. By doing this, patients have a significantly better chance of surviving cancer and potentially avoiding cancer is what experts say.

None among all the interviewed patients knew about the existence of breast cancer despite breast cancer being the most common cancer in women in Bangladesh. Lack of awareness and society’s conservativeness are the reason why these women are in such ill-fated and painful situations. We should consider it a forewarning now that if proper steps are not taken to spread awareness among women of Chittagong about breast cancer, the condition of breast cancer patients will only get worse in the near future.